It is aimed at those physicians who condemned animal magnetism. Paris: n. Composed in a format that reminds one of certain alchemical texts, the work presents text and symbols according to a code that only the initiated could understand. Attributed to the physician Bombay, the book contains descriptions of the use of physical objects as repositories of magnetism which can be used to treat the ill. In this category are trees, tubs of water, and the baquet as devised by Mesmer. The author tells how to impart magnetic fluid to these objects. The preeminent magnetizer of Lyon at the time of the report of the Franklin Commission, the physician Bonnefoy strongly criticized the report using, among other things, arguments drawn from the electrical science of the day.
Lettres de M. Geneva and Paris: Couturier, , 87 pp. Brussels: n. Written by the physician Bouvier of Versailles, the work defends the reality of animal magnetism and its effectiveness as a cure. Bouvier himself used animal magnetism successfully in his medical practice. Vienna and Paris: Royez, , 32 pp.
Brack was a physician who wrote a number of pamphlets against Mesmer and animal magnetism. In this work he provides interesting information about the foundation of magnetic Societies of Harmony in Paris and the provinces. Madrid and Paris: n. One of a number of pamphlets written by the physician Brack against animal magnetism. The first edition of this work is not known to be extant and reference to a Spanish original seems to be a literary fiction. Brissot, a French revolutionary, social critic and theoretician, believed that animal magnetism could serve as a means of achieving social reform.
In this work, among other things, he writes of how animal magnetism could make the rich more human and concerned about the poor. Written by an antiquarian and supporter of Mesmer. Soissons: n. An important and very rare document in the history of animal magnetism that contains, among other items, a letter written by a M. Dampierre was a theologian, magistrate, and president of the parliament of Bourgogne. A member of the mystical Lyons school of freemasons, he developed a philosophy of animal magnetism that viewed it as an aid to the healing and social evolution taking place according to hidden laws of nature.
The second type of crisis is that produced by suggestive individuals, when being magnetized, through imitation and the action of imagination—this being a useless and even harmful type of crisis. The third type is the crisis produced through fear upon seeing another person in the throes of a violent crisis—this also being a harmful type of crisis. The fourth type of crisis is that produced by the action of animal magnetism in susceptible persons who have a strong desire to remain in the state of crisis—this type being dangerous to the patient. Since none of these crises leads, with the possible exception of the first, to a fruitful conclusion, Dampierre and his colleagues at Lyons sought an alternate, positive healing crisis.
Dampierre believed that the crises most often produced by animal magnetism as practiced by those who used the techniques of Mesmer were of the harmful type described. He considered these crises to be embarrassing and obscene for the patient and narcissistically flattering for the magnetizer.
This Lyons brand of Freemason animal magnetism was as such strongly oriented towards the occult worldview of the magical tradition of the West. Observations sur les deux rapports de MM. A critique of the report of the commissioners charged with examining animal magnetism. He condemns their prohibition of the practice of animal magnetism and says it is unenforceable. Paris : n. Devillers was a member of the very active lodge of Freemasons of Lyon. When its members took sides on the issue of animal magnetism in , he supported the opposition.
He attempts to show that the power of imagination is sufficient explanation. Turin: Jean Michel Briolo, , 80 pp. He held a somewhat unusual attitude toward magnetism: he believed magnetism was an important medical tool and used it himself, but was not sure that it was all that the theory claimed to be. Remarques sur la conduite du sieur Mesmer et de son commis le P. The purpose of this pamphlet is to destroy the credibility of Hervier and his cure by Mesmer through animal magnetism.
Like the first leaflet, this one was tossed to the audience during a performance. Glasgow and Paris: Prault, , 27 pp. Bordeaux: Bergeret, , 69 pp. The letter also contains a number of criticisms of the way animal magnetism was being practiced in Paris. Bailly avec celles de M. Paris and Philadelphia: Pierre J. In the first part of this defence of Mesmer and animal magnetism, Gallert de Montjoie tries to find points of rapprochement between Mesmer and the astronomer Bailly. He then compares the ideas of Mesmer to those of Descartes and Newton, siding with Newton against Bailly in his view of matter and motion.
In the second part, Gallert de Montjoie takes up the report of the Franklin commission, devoting considerable space to the issue of the place of the imagination in the action of animal magnetism. He examines the place of the will in the action of the magnetic fluid, stating that it is principally by the will that the fluid is directed and that it is involved in magnetization at a distance. A treatise on animal magnetism by a man who experimented with electricity as a medical aid.
He accepted the reality of the effects of animal magnetism, but believed that imagination was probably the principal cause. Paris: Bouillon, , 24 pp. A letter in favor of animal magnetism. Morlaix: n.
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Geneva: n. Gilbert was a highly reputable physician and professor of medicine. Among other things he was known for his opposition to all forms of quackery in medicine, having written extensively on the subject. In this treatise he attests to the genuineness of the healing effects of animal magnetism, which he had repeatedly witnessed with his own eyes. However, as a strong believer in the healing powers of nature, he is sympathetic with the practice of animal magnetism. London and Paris: Royez, , 36 pp. A second set of comments continuing observations started in the first see entry number London and Paris: Gastellier, , pp.
Hervier expresses his enthusiasm for animal magnetism, the result of the healing that it had accomplished for him personally. This letter provides a detailed description of the illness and treatment. Paris: Veuve Harissart, , 51 pp. He stated his own views in this treatise. He distinguished four different kinds of facts observed by the commissioners concerning animal magnetism: the first were those general positive effects about which it was not possible to come to any conclusions as to cause; the second were those which were negative, showing only the non-action of the alleged magnetic fluid; the third were effects, either positive or negative, which could be attributed to the work of the imagination; and the fourth were those positive effects that could only be explained through the action of some unknown agent.
Jussieu concluded that although the existence of a magnetic fluid had not been proven, there were enough effects of the fourth kind to justify the continued use of animal magnetism and further investigations of the exact nature of those effects. A denunciation of Mesmer and animal magnetism by a man Mesmer failed to cure. La Grezie states his belief that magnetizers simply harm their clients.
He also presents his own theory of the possibility of communicating electrical fluid from one person to another. London and Paris: n. Because of his appreciation for the technique, he wants to make it known to the public. A booklet attributed to the physician Mahon. He writes in favor of animal magnetism, and states that if his fellow physicians look into the matter seriously, they will find much of value there for their medical practice.
Mesmer et quelquefois mieux. Paris and Philadelphia: n. Paris: N. A treatise in which the author mentions animal magnetism in the context of a discussion of medical applications of electricity. Apologie de M. Mesmer denies such dependency, stating that Thouret builds his case largely on the writings of Maxwell, whom Mesmer had not even read and whose doctrine is in any case very different from that of Mesmer. Letters to the editors of the Journal de Paris and to Benjamin Franklin, head of the commission appointed by the king to investigate animal magnetism.
He asserts that history will be the judge of the worth of his discovery. The text of the agreement is given. An important collection of works written on the subject of animal magnetism by Mesmer and others. An unusual document written by a Christian magnetizer. His mere presence seemed to be enough to heal some people, and the poor were often the beneficiaries of his magnetic power. He mentions use of the technique of fixation of the eyes to produce a convulsion and closure of the eyelids.
Lyon: Faucheux, , 27 pp. Orelut begins with a letter to Mesmer telling him that when he Orelut arrived in Lyon he found the city to be in a state of excitement about animal magnetism and the cures being attributed to it. The author then describes in some detail the nature of the cases treated and the positive effects produced. Dublin: n. A well-written treatise arguing against animal magnetism.
This is one of the most important and intelligent of the early critiques of animal magnetism. It includes a famous engraved frontispiece depicting Mesmer drawing magnetic fluid from the heavens and conferring it upon the ill. London and Paris: Couturier, , 34 pp. Paulet sets out to convince Hervier that his cure by Mesmer was not remarkable, because he Hervier had not been truly ill in the first place. A farcical piece which makes fun of Mesmer and his practices by pretending to give serious instructions about how to use animal magnetism, while really mocking the whole procedure.
Geneva and Paris: Couturier, , 15 pp. This satirical piece is attributed to Doctor Philip, dean of the faculty of medicine at Paris at the time when it carried out its investigation of animal magnetism. Paris: Imprimerie royale, , 39 pp. This report was compiled by a commission of the Royal Society of Medicine set up by the king to investigate the claims of animal magnetism. This commission was constituted at approximately the same time as a second commission The Franklin Commission , also appointed by the king, made up of nine eminent scientists from the Academy of Sciences.
The commission of the Royal Society of Medicine began its investigations on April 5, The findings of this commission condemned animal magnetism. Hampered by a lack of scientific method and a surfeit of theoretical dogmatism, however, its report proved to be far less significant than that of the Franklin commission. A work of great significance for the history of modern psychology. A member of an old and distinguished family, he had inherited a large property in Buzancy near Soissons and spent most of his time there looking after his land and occasionally carrying out experiments with electricity.
Having heard about animal magnetism and its marvelous curative powers, he went to Paris to learn from Mesmer. Returning to his estate at Buzancy, he began to use animal magnetism to alleviate the ills of local residents. Among the first he treated was a peasant named Victor Race who was suffering from a fever and congestion of the lungs. When returning to his normal state of consciousness, Victor remembered nothing of what had happened. He noted that they all showed the same characteristics as the ones that Victor had demonstrated.
The alteration in consciousness between the state of magnetic sleep and the normal waking state, with its attendant amnesia, revealed, within human beings, a double or divided consciousness with two memory chains. Bayonne and Paris: Prault, , 72 pp. He had learned the techniques of animal magnetism and found occasion to use them at this posting. Here he mentions some sixty cures accomplished through animal magnetism.
One of the most curious was that of a dog which had been injured by an angry soldier. The dog was restored to good health in the space of a few minutes. This seems to be the first example in the literature of animal magnetism of the application of magnetic healing to an animal. London and Paris: Berlin, , pp. He had been cured by a mesmerist when traditional medicine had failed to help him. Padua: n. Van Swinden was an eminent physicist and first president of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands. The dating of this work is uncertain, but it is believed to be — Thouret was a member of the Royal Society of Medicine in Paris and one of the leading spokesmen of the opposition of that society to animal magnetism and the teachings of Mesmer.
In this work Thouret claims that his main concern is not to examine the details of cures being performed by animal magnetism, but to trace the history of the theory and practice of animal magnetism. He nevertheless clearly sides with those who reject animal magnetism as an illusion. Admitting that many persons of stature accept animal magnetism as an effective cure, Thouret uses his considerable erudition to show that such cures are not new and that Mesmer was simply the most recent of a long tradition of thinkers who posited a hidden power of nature that produces healing effects.
He cites Paracelsus, Kircher, Maxwell, and Fludd as examples of men who held views similar to those of Mesmer. He points out that he has been charged by the king to investigate the mineral and medicinal waters of the realm. The work describes successful treatment of various illnesses by animal magnetism. In Two Parts. In this, the least memorable of his works on animal magnetism, Bell presents a confused physics of magnetism, animal magnetism, magnetic fluid, etc.
A satirical confession of wrongs by a fictitious member of the commission that condemned animal magnetism. Attributed to Bergasse. Observations de M. Here Bergasse announces the split that had opened between Mesmer and himself. It is valuable for the information it provides about contemporary events concerning the fortunes of animal magnetism. The constitution for the Societies of Harmony which were to be set up all over France.
Examen du Compte rendu par M. Lyon: n. Testament politique de M. Leipzig and Paris: n. A pamphlet against Mesmer. The reference to a German original seems to be a literary fiction. De Bruno developed a theory of magnetic fluid that was similar to that of Mesmer whom he cites. He posits one universal magnetic fluid, rather than many, which explains all physical phenomena.
London and Paris: E. Oufroy, , 98 pp. Carra was a prolific writer in many fields, including that of physics. Carra gives his own somewhat convoluted physical and philosophical explanations about why this is so. Aphorismes de M. Ouvrage mis au jour par M. Paris: M.
The Aphorismes was a very popular book and went through many editions. A wide ranging study of phenomena that are analogous to animal magnetism. The author covers everything from electricity and magnetism in the human body to the curative effects of music. His speculations on the nature of sympathetic cures are particularly interesting.
An attempt to trace the historical antecedents of animal magnetism. Delandine works along the same lines as those pursued in his De la philosophie corpusculaire entry number A work opposing the brand of animal magnetism being practiced in Lyon by a number of practitioners associated with Freemasonry, particularly those under the leadership of the Chevalier de Barberin. Grenoble: n. Bordeaux: n. Correspondance de M. Libourne and Paris: n. He sees magnetic somnambulism as a state midway between waking and sleep, a state essentially the same as natural somnambulism, which had been widely recognized as a reality.
Fournel points out that the seemingly extraordinary phenomena associated with magnetic somnambulism, such as suggestibility and clairvoyance, have been noted for centuries in connection with natural somnambulism. Speaking of the sudden rise to popularity of magnetic somnambulism, he estimates the number of somnambulists in Paris and the provinces to be in the neighborhood of six thousand. Fournel makes a strong case for accepting magnetic somnambulism as a genuine phenomenon which deserves further study.
Charles Louis Varnier. A satirical treatise written in opposition to animal magnetism. The author uses the popular interest in animal magnetism to advertize the use of medicinal baths and other approaches such as exercise and music to treat illnesses. However, there is very little about animal magnetism in the pamphlet.
Its mention in the title was obviously just to arouse the curiosity of the reader. Mesmer counters that it was explicitly stated in their agreement with him that the doctrine of animal magnetism remains his property and that only he can determine how it is to be propagated. Apparently the earliest Italian book on animal magnetism, and there are no references to it in any of the bibliographical sources for animal magnetism.
He begins with something of an apology for writing a book on the subject of animal magnetism, a subject which is of questionable merit.
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He points out that some French commissions had already dismissed it as a matter of imagination. But since there are people in Italy, at Piedmont, who are nonetheless practicing it, something needs to be written in response. Mullatera examines the background of magnetic medicine in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe, pointing out the similarity between the teachings of Mesmer and those of Paracelsus, Van Helmont and Fludd. For his contemporary sources he uses principally the reports of the commissions including that of Jussieu and the propositions of Mesmer.
He finds animal magnetism to be of no particular value as a method of cure and places it in the category of useless, fantastic medical treatments. Paris and London: n. The first treatise to attempt to present a comprehensive theory of magnetic somnambulism. It was published in shortly after the essay of Fournel see entry number , which Tardy de Montravel knew and appreciated. Like Fournel, he notes that since its modest beginnings at Buzancy in the previous year, the phenomena of magnetic somnambulism could now be found in Paris, Strasbourg, and throughout all the provinces of France.
Tardy de Montravel had observed many somnambulists, but he bases his newly formulated theory of magnetic somnambulism chiefly on experiments he conducted with a certain Mademoiselle N. These qualities included the ability to diagnose her own illness and those of others and the ability to perceive clairvoyantly. He also states that his Mademoiselle N. He held that this sixth sense proceeded from the stomach area and that somnambulists could see and hear with their stomachs. This work is one of the most important and influential early writings on magnetic somnambulism, being cited in nearly all treatises on the subject written before Paris: Imprimerie royale, , 74 pp.
Philadelphia: n. Mesmer que par M. Ostende: n. A member of the very active Lyon branch of Freemasonry and a friend of the celebrated philosopher Louis Claude de Saint-Martin — , the Chevalier de Barberin developed a mystical and spiritualist type of animal magnetism that quickly influenced many practitioners in France.
The notion of a physical magnetic fluid was de-emphasized and a more psychological—even magical—view of animal magnetic action took its place. The magnetic passes were made without touching the body and there was much emphasis placed on magnetizing at a distance—even at very great distances. The importance of the will was emphasized, and the magnetizer was expected to be in tune with the patient in order sympathetically to diagnose and then heal the person.
He also truly believed in the pronouncements of his magnetic somnambulists, both for their usefulness in the healing process and for their spiritual messages. A description of cures and other phenomena associated with the somnambulist Madame de La Breteniere. Cures faites par M. Le Cte. The author develops at length his notion of a sixth sense which is brought into operation in the magnetic state. Marburg: Neue Academ. Buchhandlung, , 96 pp. Birnstiel was a well-known professor of medicine at Marburg; Baldinger was a physician.
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This collection of letters is one of the earliest German works that critically examines the nature of animal magnetism. Paris: Gastellier, , pp. In support of animal magnetism and one of the few works written by a woman in the early years of its history. Intrigued by a paper on animal magnetism written by Hoffman, Gmelin decided to experiment with this potential source of healing on his own patients. In this work he presents detailed case histories of his magnetic treatments and draws preliminary conclusions about the nature of animal magnetism.
Rastadt: J. Dorner, , 14 pp. Strasbourg: n. Mouilleseaux proposes the establishment of a journal that will publish articles on the systematic and scientific study of animal magnetism a journal that never came into being. In the process of making his proposal, the author gives an informative picture of the present state of affairs with regard to animal magnetism. He has a note on the phenomena of magnetic somnambulism that is one of the best summaries of that subject of the time.
Second partie. Petetin describes a number of cases of hysteria that he treated through the induction of magnetic somnambulism. He believed that certain hysterics spontaneously enter somnambulistic states and that magnetic somnambulism could be better understood through the experiences of these patients. He, like Tardy de Montravel before him, believed that somnambulists could see and hear from the stomach area. These letters have become rather rare.
Der Beobachter des thierischen Magnetismus und des Somnambulismus. The author writes with the purpose of bringing a balance to the controversy for and against animal magnetism. He says that he has himself observed errors of judgment and unfounded conclusions reached by the supporters of animal magnetism, but this should not serve to lead to the condemnation of that doctrine. What is needed, he says, is a balanced and careful investigation of the facts, not a wholesale dismissal of the phenomenon because of admitted shortcomings in some of its supporters.
Villers was a member of the society of harmony of the Metz artillery regiment associated with that of the Marquis at Strasbourg. His highly philosophical theory of animal magnetism was clearly influenced by that of the Lyon school of the Chevalier de Barberin. This work is a novel, but is as much a theoretical treatise on animal magnetism as it is a work of fiction. An important writing in the history of animal magnetism and psychotherapy, it develops a definite psychology of the relationship between magnetizer and magnetized. Villers does not seem to believe in the existence of a magnetic fluid—at least he does not place any importance upon a physical agent in the action of animal magnetism.
Rather he sees animal magnetism as the work of the soul, a spiritual entity, which makes use of the will to bring about the desired curative effects. He believed that patients must put their trust in the magnetizer, opening themselves completely to his influence, and he in turn must exercise a familial benevolence towards them. This work has a curious publication history. Today only one copy of the first edition is extant.
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As he states in his preface, he made some changes, but left the work principally intact. In any case the second edition is extremely rare. Hamburg: n. Strasbourg: Treuttel, , 54 pp. He compares Mesmer to Galileo and Harvey whose important discoveries were rejected by their contemporaries. He then sets out a proposal for a course of study of animal magnetism, highlighted by an investigation of the physics, chemistry and metaphysics of magnetism.
The proposed course would also deal with the practical application of animal magnetism to healing and with procedures to be used for different cases. Within this framework he suggests an examination of the effects of magnetic somnambulism, particularly questioning the accuracy of the medical pronouncements of somnambulists. Dublin: The Author, , 38 pp. Bell states that he then developed his own practice of animal magnetism, and it is from these experiences that he writes the present treatise. Bell finds magnetic somnambulism the most interesting aspect of animal magnetism because the phenomena it produces are so striking.
This is the first lengthy discussion of magnetic somnambulism written in English. Dublin: P. Byron, , 36 pp. Lausanne: Henri Vincent, , 61 pp. London and Paris: Couturier, , pp. Lo-Looz was a Belgian physician who was also a spiritual philosopher. This book devotes about sixty pages to animal magnetism, a phenomenon which the author claims to have known about before Mesmer.
Lo-Looz also finds hints in the writings of the Chinese that they had long known about animal magnetism. London : n. A treatise containing pronouncements on spiritual matters by a magnetic somnambulist, along with prescriptions for how to apply animal magnetism. One of the earliest German treatises on animal magnetism. Acknowledging that more often than not animal magnetism has been a subject of ridicule, Meiners undertakes to present enough information about it to convince the reader that it is a respectable subject of inquiry. He concentrates on animal magnetism as a healing art and describes the method to be used in magnetizing and the marks that characterize the magnetized state, emphasizing that this state has a remarkable power to bring about healing in the physical organism.
In the process of examining this healing power, Meiners describes in detail a number of interesting case histories. Leipzig: G. Goschen, , pp. His comments are highly critical of the position taken by members of the Swedish society. He objects to the basically religious orientation of their explanation of the phenomena of animal magnetism, their belief that supernatural and spirit forces are at work.
This even-handed and well-written work is one of the best discussions of the problems of occult interpretations of magnetic phenomena to appear before The Exegetic and Philanthropic Society of Stockholm was founded to study and promote the teachings of Emmanuel Swedenborg — , a visionary and intellectual of great influence. The theory of animal magnetism, and especially the experiences connected with magnetic somnambulism, were very attractive to this society and it incorporated them into its world view. It is not surprising that the Swedish society found the writings of the Strasbourg society, oriented as they were to the psychological and moral aspects of magnetic somnambulism, congenial to its philosophical framework.
The Stockholm society believed that supernatural and spirit forces were at work in the creation of disease and so must be involved in the cure. The Stockholm Society attempted to show that this Swedenborgian view of illness was the only reasonable way to explain the phenomena of animal magnetism and magnetic somnambulism. Dieterich, , 44 pp. Written to obtain a degree in medicine and surgery, this is an interesting but very abbreviated list of works on animal magnetism.
It cites the title of the work, place of publication, and number of pages. Its greatest value is that it lists periodical articles on animal magnetism and also gives locations of periodical reviews of the books mentioned. London: Wagstaff, , 17 pp. London: J. Cooke, for The Author, , 9 pp. Heidelberg: F. Pfahler, , pp. Rahn states that he has studied the writings on animal magnetism and has not discovered anything essentially new. Rather he has found a revision of old opinions about a universal world spirit that also exists in the human body.
This universal world spirit not only produces the general mutual influence between all bodies, heavenly and earthly, but also produces the special sympathy between one man and another, and is, in the last analysis, the bond between body and soul. Rahn notes there is a remarkable connection between individuals who are magnetized at the same time and he relates this connection to the old, well-known notion of natural sympathy.
But he says that people must be willing to learn what new things the magnetists have to teach them, and, with the idea of an animal magnetic material, perhaps something novel has been added to traditional knowledge of the phenomena. London: Stockdale, , 70 pp. One of the earliest British works on animal magnetism. Martin believed magnetizers to be mere hustlers drumming up business with empty promises of cure. With Notes and Appendix by the Editor. London: W. Stratford, , 51 pp.
The author casts a skeptical eye on the purported effectiveness of animal magnetism in curing illness. The author emphasizes the importance of a good will for effective treatment. An attempt to look at the questions of animal magnetism and animal electricity from a physiological point of view. The author tends to downplay the importance of the effects of animal magnetism, although he admits it does exist, and to emphasize the importance of animal electricity. Animal Magnetism. Gesammelt und herausgegeben von dem Hofrath von Eckhartshausen. Paris : Marat, , 40 pp. London: M. Februarii a.
Lugduni Batavorum? The most influential of the early British works on animal magnetism. Bell was trained in animal magnetism at the Paris Society of Harmony and at the beginning of the book includes a reproduction of a certificate of fellowship signed by Bergasse, Kornman, and others. Bell uses his own terminology to describe the phases of animal magnetism. He also emphasizes the importance of the will in the process of magnetization and even mentions the ability to will an absent person into the magnetic state.
Bell used this book as a sort of written manual to supplement lectures on the subject of animal magnetism that he delivered throughout Britain. Riflessioni sul magnetismo animale-fatte ad oggetto di illuminare i suio cittadini aveudolo trovato salutare in molti mali. A Key to Physic, and the Occult Sciences. A handbook for health practice that combines occult procedures with medical electricity and animal magnetism.
The book contains some remarkable plates depicting these practices. Benjamin Perkins was the son of the American doctor Elisha Perkins — who developed a healing technique involving the use of metallic tractors. The approach in some way resembled that used by the practitioners of animal magnetism; partly because of that, it received a hostile reception from the American medical establishment.
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Benjamin took up the cause, promoting the tractors in the United States and England. Certificates of the Efficacy of Dr. New London, Connecticut: S. Elisha Perkins was an American physician who developed a healing technique involving the use of metallic tractors. The approach in some way resembled that used by the practitioners of animal magnetism. Only George Washington, because of the request of his friend Lafayette, gave it any kind of a hearing through a brief correspondance with Mesmer.
These devices were made of dissimilar metals, gold and silver, and were approximately three inches in length. His son Benjamin was more vocal about theoretical issues see his Influence of Metallic Tractors. This collection of certificates simply testifies to the efficacy of the tractors. See Elisha Perkins, Certificates of the Efficacy. Observations of Animal Electricity. In Explanation of the Metallic Operation of Dr.
Wilmington: W. Smyth, , 32 pp. An attempt to explain the efficacy of the metallic tractors of Elisha Perkins see the works of Elisha and Benjamin Perkins in terms of animal electricity. The Lectures of J. Couverture souple. Seller Inventory About this Item: Condition: Used; Good. Published by Slatkine Reprints From: Gallix Gif sur Yvette, France. About this Item: Slatkine Reprints, Condition: Neuf. Published by Odile Jacob About this Item: Odile Jacob, Condition: Brand New. French language. In Stock. Seller Inventory zk Published by La Rose du Soir About this Item: La Rose du Soir, Condition: D'occasion - Comme neuf.
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