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A nonprofit association for self-publishing authors organized across eight publishing territories. Canada's professional writing community. Advising individuals and speaking out for the profession since The central professional organization for writers and literary translators in Sweden. A trade union representing professional writers in TV, film, theatre, radio, books, comedy, poetry, animation, online, and videogames. Canada's national organization of professionally published book authors. See Bulletin. No conference rooms. No phone calls. No conversation. Just you, the keyboard and a room of like-minded individuals serious about getting the work done.

Once a month, six people from different backgrounds tell ten-minute true stories without using notes or memorization. Another prominent group with more than a dozen chapters is the year old California Writers Club. It was the first professional writers group in California and Jack London was among its charter members.

Here's a article about it. Augustine, St. Lucie County--Treasure Coast, St. Check out teacher and librarian scholarships to attend the seminar. Residencies at The Betsy are typically Sunday through Wednesday. See the workshop's summer programs. Boyle, to name just a few. Watch archived video of Great Conversations online. Maryland See also groups listed under Washington, DC, which often meet in, or draw writers from, Maryland.

See Washington Writers Conference. See Facebook page. Originally called Books Alive! Janovy, KCUR, This group of speculative fiction — horror, fantasy, and science fiction — writers meet regularly to critique each others' work. Missouri seems to attract or nurture romance writers. Louis association for African American writers.

The Prostitutes of Post Office Street by Frank F. Carden

Meets twice a month. It is through rhythm that the poet. The brusque and the intemperate in the poet-lover embodied in the movement of the verse shows that the poet is full of disrespect for the sun who is widely respected. The movement of the verse indicates impatience and impertinence. Thus the movement is in keeping with the emotion and experience that the poet wants to communicate.

The angry poet fashions pungent shafts and hurls them at his adversary, the sun. The use of the pause after 'fool' and 'Sun' in the first line is indicative of the fact that the poet, in a calm mood quite possessed with himself, breaks the sun into smithereens. The scornful mood plays against the rhythm of the line and thereby heightens his anger and disdain.

The poet also varies the length of the line as per the demand of versification. It has got naturalness and directness typical of dramatic blank verse. In a dramatic verse gesture, intonation, pause and emphasis work in unison. These elements taken together compose the movement of this poem and the poem. The first two lines are short whereas the third one is long with the doubling of expressions such as 'Through windowes and 'through curtaines". The second line is a run-on entering into the syntactical pattern of the third line.

The auxiliary 'dost' is separated from the main verb, 'call' by the expression, 'through windowes and through curtaines'. It is a device for putting emphasis on the invasion of the bed-chamber in a clandestine manner. The length of the third line in its iambic measure is expressive of the rays of the sun in the form of peeping Tom.

The interrogative structure of the fourth line is in the form of a challenge to the sun. The use of the auxiliary 'must' with its note of compulsion and 'inevitability in the interrogative structure is designed for making a mockery of the pretentious Sun who is supposed to rule over the world. The preponderance of sibilants from line number one to line number four coupled with alliteration and assonance are meant to increase the intensity of the venomous feeling against the sun. He is on a mocking spree and does not refrain even from calling names like 'saucy' and 'pedantique' These adjectives are used also to heighten the negative effect by degrees.

From the above example it is manifest that the lines in Donne's verse are freely divided and are of varied length. It approximates to the speaking voice and has the vigour of colloquial speech. It is not the solemn and dignified march of verse associated with Spenser in the Amoretti sequence. Spenser mounts a perch and does not know how to descend from it. His versification is in an elevated key and lines are of equal length. This regularity of mood and line is an anathema to Donne.

It is because Donne has a realistic perception of man caught in the web of the intricacy of the human heart. This perception is to be presented in a verse medium which catches the fleeting nuances of feelings and thoughts and embodies them in the tone, gesture and movement of the speaking voice. The Sun Rising is a dramatic lyric in the form of a dialogue between the narrator and Sun and the narrator's beloved is the silent listener present in the background throughout.

The time is early morning when the Sun is rising in the east. In many other lyrics of Donne, the stress is on the self-sufficient nature of love. The poem opens in an abrupt, conversational style which is characteristic of Donne's technique. The opening lines reprimand the Sun, shifting the traditional attitude of awe and reverence toward the Sun.

The shift in attitude is a reflection of new information available about the solar system. Lines of the Sonnet, the Sun is personified into an unwanted busy body who should be overseeing other routine chores because the world of love is above the mundane and the everyday part of the world. The first stanza builds up the tone of irreverence toward the Sun and the exclusive nature of love. The second stanza continues the glorification of love and the venting of playful anger against the Sun.

This stanza is also important for its references to the East i. The third stanza elevates the beloved to the level of "states" equated with kingdom but in the same line, the lover elevates himself to the all princes which implies the controlling authority. Though the world of lovers is far more supreme than any other world, be it the west or the east, but within that world of love, the lover 'I' is the ruler over "she" who is all states.

The stanza ends on a note of gentle reconciliation was the Sun old fool who should realize the importance of lovers through the vigorous argument presented by the poet. The world of lovers is a microcosm of the world outside. Call on : Look on. Pedantic : Disciplining in the manner of a school teacher. Prentices : Trainees. Country ants : peasants. Harvest offices : harvest office. Clime : Country. Mine : Gold and silver mines. In the s the Copernican heliocentric system placed the sun at the centre with the earth and other heavenly bodies in orbit around it.

But here the speaker's irreverence and the use of extravagant conceits is without precedent. The sun is supposed to be the accurate keeper of diurnal and seasonal time, but here ironically his accuracy is deemed tardy, or "unruly" by the lovers as it runs counter to their time keeping. There is a reduction of figures of authority caught in the motions of public life to the common level of scurrying ants.

With the discovery of the West Indies, the mining of Caribbean gold was added to the Oriental spice trade. Play : mimic. Establishing themselves as the archetypes, with all other sovereigns as mere imitators. Alchemy is a bogus science that claims it can change base metal to gold. John Milton. His reign lasting till is referred to as the Jacobean period in English history. It was witness to several major transformations in English society, perhaps the most important being the gradual alienation of the court from its increasingly insistent and demanding subjects and the King from an increasingly Puritan Parliament.

Milton is like an ideal in the soul, like a lofty mountain on the horizon. We never attain the ideal; we never climb the mountain; but life would be inexpressibly poorer were either to be taken away. His father, John Milton, is said to have turned Puritan while a student at Oxford and to have been disinherited by his family; whereupon he settled in London and prospered greatly as a scrivener, that is a kind of notary.

A brief course at the famous St. The most noteworthy song of this period of Milton's life is his splendid ode, "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity," which was begun on Christmas day, Milton, while deep in the classics, had yet a greater love" for his native literature. Spenser was for. While at Cambridge it was the desire of his parents that Milton should take orders in the Church of England; but the intense love of mental liberty which stamped the Puritan was too strong within him, and he refused to consider the " oath of servitude," as he called it, which would mark his ordination.

Throughout his life Milton, though profoundly religious, held aloof from the strife of sects. In his belief, he belonged to the extreme Puritans, called Separatists, Independents, Congregationalists, of which America's Pilgrim Fathers are the great examples; but he refused to be bound by any creed or church discipline. From boyhood the strain on the poet's eyes had grown more and more severe; but even when his sight was threatened he held steadily to his purpose of using his pen in the service of his country The book speedily became famous and was the source of all Royalist arguments against the Commonwealth.

The last part of Milton's life is a picture of solitary grandeur un-equaled in literary history. With the Restoration all his labors and sacrifices for humanity were apparently wasted. From his retirement he could hear the bells and the shouts that welcomed back a monarch, whose first act was to set his foot upon his people's neck. Milton was immediately marked for persecution; he remained for months in hiding; he was reduced to poverty, and his books were burned by the public hangman.

His daughters, upon whom he depended in his blindness, rebelled at the task of reading to him and recording his thoughts. With great difficulty he found a publisher, and for the great work, now the most honored poem in our literature, he received less than "certain verse makers of our day receive for a little song in the popular magazines". Its success was immediate, though, like all his work, it met with venomous criticism. Dryden summed up the impression made on thoughtful minds of his time when he said, "This man cuts us all out, and the ancients too. The picture of Israel's mighty champion, blind, alone, afflicted by thoughtless enemies but preserving a noble ideal to the end, is a fitting close to the life work of the poet himself.

As students of literature, you are by now aware of the question of periodisation, i. Milton was writing in the Late Renaissance and his writings reflect the concerns of that period. However, the text that you would be studying forms part of Milton's work which is described as personal sonnets.

To understand the sentiment underlying the sonnet, let us briefly examine the kind of poet Milton is considered to be. Most critics consider Milton to be the most important and influential poet in the English language after William Shakespeare. Milton's understanding of the of the poetic vocation was, from the beginning an exalted one. He saw himself, as the true successor of Spenser, in that he wanted to fuse the classical heritage of the Renaissance with the Christian spirit of the Reformation.

It is in this sense that Milton is also an intensely self-reflective poet, whose poetry is suffused with the awareness of its own ambition and vocation. What is important to note is that the answer for Milton was always a religious one, in the sense that he saw his poetry as always in the service of Christianity. In this sense, poetry was a spiritual vocation, divinely inspired by a religious muse and therefore, in continuation with his religious interests rather than a means of attaining public status or attention, and self aggrandizement.

Milton believed contemporary protestant English culture was the true Christian one. Apart from a manifest English-nationalistic sensibility, most of Milton's poetry is suffused by a musicality that underscores his concern with enhancing the poetics of the English language. Thus, the rhymes and rhythms native to English are explored with lyrical skills.

This musicality became an important dimension of Milton's poetry especially after his blindness set in. By , Milton had become completely blind, which was also the year when his wife Mary Powell died. After two more marriages and a brief spell of self-imposed exile. Milton continued to create works of seminal importance in the world of English poetry and prose. Milton and the Sonnet Tradition :. Milton had written sonnets, when he was very young. Some of the early ones had been published in the 'Poems' of Nearly all the others remained unpublished until , the year before Milton's death, while three or four, for obvious political reasons, did not appear until , long after the author's death.

The sonnet is one of the few forms Milton used for which he had no classical precedent or model.

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One of the reasons for its appeal to Milton, could have been because it was an Italian form, the greatest practitioners of which had been Dante, Petrarch and Tasso. William Wordsworth's tribute to the sonnet form captures the heritage of the poets:. Scorn not the sonnet; Critic, you have frowned…. In addition to its long history in the hands of poets he admired, Milton would have been attracted to the sonnet by the limitations the form imposed upon any poet who uses it. It is one of the few English forms Italian has many more in which the poet's craft is taxed to the full to keep within boundaries and limitations yet challenged to transcend those limitations by adaptation - of materials, to the metrical rules.

The form required the terseness Milton admired in Greek poetry, the opportunity and the challenge to say much in little. As Milton inherited the sonnet, he was free to choose among several forms, some Italian, some English, each having the authority of great poets. The tercet offered more variety. Occasionally, a final couplet appears, though it is far from common. The Petrarchan sonnet, to Milton, consists of an octave with enclosed, not alternate lines and a sestet with three rhymes, arranged in various ways.

In England, two simpler forms developed among those who did not follow the Petrarchan model. In spite of Milton's admiration for both Shakespeare and Spenser, it was natural that with his love for Italian poetry and his tendency toward the "Classical" model, he should have followed Petrarch and adapted the tighter and more difficult of the various rhyme schemes. His octave is always abba, abba, his sestet often limited to two rhymes, although he uses combinations of cde in five English sonnets.

As the sonnet grew in Milton's right hand - it became a form characteristically Miltonic in its rhythmic dexterity and virtuosity. Unlike various other poets, Milton did not feel a necessary separation between octave and sestet. More and more he tends to carry over the sense from either the eighth or the ninth into the next part, as, for example, in his sonnet 'On his Blindness'.

Milton's sonnets may be divided into three groups - conventional, personal and political. He must have believed, that the great work for which he had been "called" would never be written. When I consider how my light is spent,. Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide,. And that one talent which is death to hide,. Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent. To serve therewith my maker, and present. My true account, lest he, returning chide,. Doth God exact day-labour, light denied,. I fondly ask; but Patience to prevent. That murmur soon replies, God doth not need.

Either man's work or his own gifts, who best. Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best, his state. Is kingly. Thousands at his bidding speed. And post o'er land and ocean without rest:. They also serve who only stand and wait. The Sonnet' On His Blindness' proceeds from grief through questioning to final resignation but both mood and meaning are far more profound than they had been in youthful reflections on his birthday. Milton had laboured with all his might while it was still light but darkness of a different sort had fallen before the working day was over - before half his working - days should have been over.

Was the labourer still responsible for increasing the talent which he could no longer see? Blindness was a far greater impediment to Milton than it might have been to a poet of another school to whom poetry might literally have been the spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling. Milton was not only a 'classical' poet; he believed that one who would write a poem "doctrinal to a nation" must be a learned poet.

For his great poem he needed to turn to books, as does a scholar, who is far more dependent on his eyes than is a novelist or a lyric poet. When total darkness descended, he must have believed there was no possibility of his continuing with the great work he had laid aside at the call of his poetry. For a time he could only submit, saying with Job, "The Lord giveth and the Lord taketh away. Blessed be the name of the Lord". As among angels, so among men who serve God on earth, there must be those who no longer able to be God's "eyes", serve in some other way: "They also serve who only stand and wait".

The metaphor around which the sonnet is developed is the parable of the talents in the Bible. After having read the sonnet you would have sensed the mood, the controlled emotion, the despair and finally the note of submission to the will of God. The poem also reflects Milton's personal anxiety about his age, his vocational belatedness. By , Milton was totally blind. He had spent years fulfilling his duties to the Council of State. Now he was under malicious attack for defending Cromwell's government to the world and for his own advocacy of divorce. However, the sonnet is proof enough that his talent has not been rendered "useless" by age and blindness.

The structure : In structure this is one of the three most masterly of Milton's sonnets… It follows the scheme cde cde in the sestet. This pattern serves well to articulate the longish argument which constitutes the consolation to the blind poet, since it permits the elaboration of extended sentences. The sonnet represents a conventional, classical form. Rooted in Biblical thought and imagery the sonnet reflects the single most important influence on his work. On re-reading the sonnet you will discover how the sonnet moves between two long sentences.

The first one "When I consider" from line one to the middle of line eight, "I fondly ask" constitutes the octave. This reflects a deep felt contemplation through Biblical parables. The poet's personal loss thus weighs more heavy on his heart. But the mood changes in the second part of the sentence which constitutes the thought.

Structurally it is a continuation of the first sentence. Yet there is a sense of consolation, through the reference to God's undemanding nature. The sonnet ends with the second sentence which affirms the greatness and glory of God and a justification of all that destiny has bestowed. Notes and Glossary:. The traditional span of man's life is the Biblical 'threescore years and ten' i. Milton may have been thinking of his working life, or of his father who lived to eighty four and had good eyesight. The kingdom of heaven is likened to a master who was about to go on a long journey and left five talents a sum of money with one servant, two to a second and one to the third.

The first traded with his talents and doubled them, the second did the same and the third buried his one talent for safety. The master returned and called them to account and the first gave him the ten talents and was rewarded: 'Well done thou good and faithful servant. Milton plays on this meaning and the modern sense 'special aptitude or faculty'. Further Reading:. Cedric C. Martin's, John T. Jonathan Swift. The Revolution of , which banished the last of the Stuart Kings and called William of Orange to the throne, marks the end of the long struggle for political freedom in England.

Thereafter, the Englishman spent his tremendous energy, which his forbears had largely spent in fighting for freedom, in endless political discussions and efforts to improve his government. In order to bring about reforms, votes were now necessary; and to get votes the people of England had to be approached with ideas, facts, arguments, information. So the newspaper was born. The first half of the eighteenth century was remarkable for the rapid social development in England. In a single generation, nearly two thousand public coffee houses, each a centre of social interaction sprang up in London alone.

Typical books or poems of the age conveyed this feeling of superficial elegance. Government still had its opposing Tory and Whig parties, and the Church was divided into Catholics, Anglicans and Dissenters; but the growing social life offset many antagonisms, producing at least the outward impression of peace and unity.

Nearly every writer of the age busied himself with religion as well as with party politics. In the latter half of the century, the political and social progress took on additional dimensions. The modern form of Cabinet government responsible to Parliament and the people had been established under George I. Schools were established; clubs and coffee-houses increased; books and magazines multiplied until the press was the greatest visible power in England; the modern great dailies, the Chronicle, Post and Times, began their career of public education.

Methodism contributed to spiritual revivalism.

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Outside its borders, the banner of Britain was unfurled in India, Australia and the islands of the Pacific, stretching the empire of the Anglo-Saxons. Satire was a dominant form to expose the faults and foibles of men and Institutions. It also sought to develop a particular style, capturing the critical, intellectual spirit of many writers, to fine polish heroic couplets and to use literary writings for politico-religious ends. The poet and his poetry Described as one of the greatest geniuses of the Augustan writers, Jonathan Swift has gone down in literary history as a man who always brought tragedy in its wake.

It is only by accepting his life of struggle, disappointment and bitterness, that one can appreciate the personal quality in his satire. Swift was born in Dublin, of English parents, in His father died before he was born; his mother was poor, and Swift, though proud, was compelled to accept aid from relatives, who gave it grudgingly.

At the Kilkenny School and especially at Dublin University, he detested the curriculum, reading only what appealed to his own nature; but since a degree was necessary to his success, he was compelled to work for it and accept it as a favour from his examiners. After graduation, the only position open to him was with a distant relative, Sir William Temple, who gave him the position of private secretary largely on account of the unwelcome relationship.

Temple was a statesman and an excellent diplomat; but he considered himself to be a great writer as well, and he entered into a literary controversy concerning the relative merits of the classics and modern literature. Swift read and studied widely after his position with Temple, grew unbearable, he quarreled with his patron, took orders, and entered the Church of England.

Faithful to his church duties, he laboured to improve the condition of the unhappy people around him. The work brought him into notice as the most powerful satirist of his age and he soon gave up politics to retire from the strife of party politics. The cheap pamphlet was then the most powerful political weapon known and Swift, with his ability as a satirist soon became a dominant figure. The Whigs feared the lash of his satire and the Tories feared to lose his support. He, then, enjoyed support from various sections. Unable to achieve the position of a bishop as he had expected he returned to Dublin, a disappointed and bitter man.

With his return to Ireland, begins the last act in the tragedy of his life. Written chiefly in the years for the benefit of Esther Johnson, the Journal is interesting for two reasons. It is, first, an excellent commentary on contemporary characters and political events, and second, in its love passages and purely personal description, it gives the best picture we possess of Swift himself at the summit of his power and influence.

The passages of tenderness for the woman who loved him, and who brought the only ray of sunlight into his life reflect another surprising side of Swift. During the last years of his life a brain disease, of which he had shown frequent symptoms, fastened its terrible hold upon Swift and he became by turns an idiot and a mad man. It stands to-day as the most suggestive monument of his peculiar genius. Corinna, pride of Drury Lane,. For whom no shepherd sighs in vain;.

Never did Covent Garden boast. So bright a batter'd strolling toast;. No drunken rake to pick her up,. No cellar where on tick to sup;. Returning at the midnight hour;. Four storeys climbing to her bower;. Then seated on a three-legg'd chair,. Takes off her artificial hair:. Now, picking out a crystal eye,.

She wipes it clean and lays it by. Her eye-brows from a mouse's hide,. Stuck on with art on either side,. Pulls off with care, and first displays 'em,. Then in a play-book smoothly lays 'em. Now dexterously her plumpers draws,.

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That serve to fill her hollow jaws. Untwists a wire and from her gums. A set of teeth completely comes.

The Prostitutes of Post Office Street

Pulls out the rags contriv'd to prop. Her flabby dugs and down they drop. Proceeding on, the lovely goddess. Unlaces next her steel-ribb'd bodice;. Which by the operator's skill,. Press down the lumps, the hollows fill,. Up goes her hand, and off she slips. The bolsters that supply her hips. With gentlest touch she next explores. Her shankers, issues, running sores,. Effects of many a sad disaster;. And then to each applies a plaster. But must before she goes to bed,. Rub off the daubs of white and red;. And smooth the furrows in her front,. With greasy paper stuck upon't. She takes a bolus ere she sleeps;.

And then between two blankets creeps. With pains of love tormented lies;. Or if she chance to close her eyes,. Of Bridewell and the Compter dreams,. And feels the lash, and faintly screams;. Or by a faithless bully drawn,. At some hedge-tavern lies in pawn;. Or to Jamaica seems transported,.

Alone, and by no planter courted;. Or, near Fleet Ditch's oozy brinks,. Surrounded with a hundred stinks,. Belated, seems on watch to lie. And snap some cully passing by;. Or, struck with fear, her fancy runs. On watchmen, constables and duns,. From whom she meets with frequent rubs;. But, never from religious clubs;. Whose favour she is sure to find,. Because she pays them all in kind. Corinna wakes. A dreadful sight! Behold the ruins of the night! A wicked rat her plaster stole,. Half ate, and dragged it to his hole. The crystal eye, alas was missed;. And Puss had on her plumpers pissed,.

A pigeon pick'd her issue-peas;. And Shock her tresses fiiJ'd with fleas. The Nymph, though in this mangled plight,. Must ev'ry morn her limbs unite. But how shall I describe her arts. To recollect the scatter'd parts?

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Or show the anguish, toil, and pain,. Of gath'ring up herself again? The bashful Muse will never bear. In such, a scene to interfere. Corinna in the morning dizen'd. Who see;' will spew; who smells, be poison'd. The gradual undressing is an exposure of the extent to which prostitutes went to appear youthful in an attempt to attract customers for their survival.

In the first six couplets i. The lines suggest that a woman who is the inverse of Corrina is deprived of attention in the worst of places, like brothels which are visited by the worst of rakes. Artificial hair, glassy eye are removed first. The reference is to the use of artifice to project a false appearance to play with emotions and to create a make-believe world, for the customers as well as for herself.

However, the portrait is not condemnation of natural decay but used to represent false presentations and hypocrisy which had become integral to a society of superficialities. Lines 24 to 30, i. The final stage of preparation for bed is accomplished by removing the last vestiges of cosmetics used to paint her face and cover the wrinkles on her brow with a greasy paper, an attempt to reduce them. Once again, the focus is on the world of artificialities which surround and sustain the life of the subject described. Lines describe in a continuous series of couplets, the images and thoughts which would haunt a typical prostitute of Drury Lane.

The word tormented also implies a sense of guilt.

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The last three lines of the first section sum up the nexus between the world of prostitutes and the clergy, which seems to be the only section of society indulging the prostitutes who would, it is implied, render their services without any charge to the priests. The second section of four couplets traces the ruins of Corrina after a wakeful, disturbing night.

The animal imagery completes the picture of a human being, more so, a woman gone to seed, as a result of her wicked ways. Does there lurk somewhere within the lines a sense of shock at what could possibly happen to a young, innocent maiden trapped in the culture of Fleet Street? The reader may wonder at this kind of poetry. But we must remember that the most uncharitable satires were penned by Swift. But what does this poem reveal about Swift? Was he a misogynist or is this poem an over-reaction to the artful ways adopted by women of some sections to survive in a society of muddled morals and expediency.

Also used by the Roman poet Ovid in his erotic Amores. Greek poetess of Boeotia of 6 B. She is said to have instructed Pindar. She lives in a garret, the cheapest rooms on rent. Hedge tavern : disreputable tavern. It ran near where Fleet Street is today. Clearly Swift sees them as hypocrites. William Blake. The period from till the French Revolution and the American war of Independence is one of many changes.

Technology reached another zenith with the perfection of the steam engine. Development in the textile industry was effected by the invention of the "mule" spinning machine. A number of events occurred which collectively gave rise to new ways of thinking. Penal colony was founded in Botony Bay Australia. Parliamentary Democracy showed sings of flourishing with the impeachment of Warren Hastings in the House of Commons.

The French Revolution began while in the U. The underlying contradictions of a period cannot be ignored.

While thrust was given to democratic ideals on the one hand, there was a reactionary wave through the suspension of Habeas Corpus in England, which allowed the arrest of radicals without trial. These contradiction are captured by poets and articulated through individual style and idiom. Subsequently, the nineteenth century was also the period of union between Great Britain and Ireland and the abolition of slave trade. The period also marked the ascension of Queen Victoria. Of all the Romantic Poets of the eighteenth century, William Blake is the most independent and the most original.

In his earliest work, written when he was scarcely more than a child, he seems to go back to the Elizabethan song writers for his models; but for the greater part of his life he was the poet of inspiration alone, following no man's lead, and obeying no voice but that which he heard in his own mystic soul.

Though the most extraordinary literary genius of his age, he had practically no influence upon it. Blake, the son of a London tradesman, was a strange imaginative child, whose soul was more at home with brooks and flowers and fairies than with the crowd of the city streets. Beyond learning to read and write, he received no education; but he began at ten years, to copy prints and to write verses.

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